The Large Hadron Collider is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. Credit: CERN
Since 2019, many locations at CERN have behaved like honeycombs to complete the scheduled upgrade of the accelerator complex’s second long shutdown (LS2). This period of intense work is nearing its end with the injection of the first pilot beam into the LHC. This key milestone will be featured at a live event on CERN’s social media channel on October 20th at 4 pm (CEST).
The pilot beam is part of a test run of the LHC machine in preparation for Run 3 starting in 2022. With integrated luminosity equal to the combination of the previous two runs, more accurate measurements can be made in four LHC experiments. Still, all of them had to undergo a series of upgrades and conversions to keep up with the improved vitality of the accelerator.
A refurbished Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and an improved miniframe were added to the cave’s ALICE detector, followed by the reinstallation of the new muon forward tracker sub-detector. In May, the new internal tracking system (ITS), the largest pixel detector ever built, became the seat of the previous system between the beampipe and the TPC. The last piece of the ALICE puzzle, Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT), was installed in July.
At ATLAS, the muon spectrometer has been upgraded as part of the ongoing work. In particular, one of two new small wheels using new technologies such as the new Small Strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) and Micromegas detector has been installed. The twins will be dropped into the detector cave in November.
In 2020, CMS experiments completed the installation of the first GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier Tube) station, a new sub-detector system for detecting muons in the area closest to the beampipe. This year, a new redesigned beam pipe with a new vacuum pump group was installed. During the summer, after the design was improved and the innermost layer was replaced, a pixel tracker was placed in the center of the CMS detector, followed by a beam emission, instrumentation, and brightness (BRIL) sub-detector.
For the LHCb experiment, significant metamorphosis has occurred in the last two years. New scintillation fiber particle tracking detectors (SciFi) and upgraded ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors RICH1 and RICH2 were installed this year before the beampipes were restarted. A faster VertexLocator (VELO) installation is planned for the next few months.
The first proton beam circulated through CERN’s accelerator chain last December, and the first beam was injected into the PS booster (PSB) and connected to the new Linac 4 for the first time. The proton synchrotron then accelerated the first beam in March, and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerated the first beam in May.
Quote : Four LHC experiments prepare for the pilot beam (October 18, 2021) obtained from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-lhc-ready.html on October 18, 2021. doing.
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